University of California Small Grains
University of California Small Grains
University of California Small Grains
University of California
University of California Small Grains

Growth & Development

The growth and development of the small grains (wheat, triticale, barley, and oat) follow very similar patterns.

Plant development is divided into several stages: Germination and Early Seedling Growth, Tillering and Vegetative Growth, Elongation and Heading, Fowering, and Kernel Development.

 

Numerical scales have been devised for quantifying the growth stages of small grains. Those most commonly used are the Zadoks, Feekes, and Haun growth scales.


growth-scale
growth-scale
The Zadoks system uses a 2-digit code to refer to the principal stages of growth from germination (stage 0) through kernel ripening (stage 9). The second digit subdivides each principal growth stage. For instance, “13” indicates that in principal stage 1 (seedling growth) subdivi- sion 3, leaves are at least 50 percent emerged from the main stem; “75” indicates that in principal stage 7 (kernel development) subdivision 5, the grain is at the medium milk stage.

The Feekes scale (1 to 11.4) numerically identifies stages from emergence through ripening.

The Haun scale deals mainly with the pattern of leaf production, in which the length of each emerging leaf is expressed as a fraction of the preceding leaf.

For more information on these scales, see Simmons, Oelke, and Anderson 1995.

 


 

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